Modern city apartments in high-rise buildings have only electrical wiring, no gas pipeline, so electric stoves are installed in the kitchen. Many new settlers are interested in the principle of operation of the electric stove, as well as its device. In this article we will try to give a comprehensive answer.
General scheme of work
The device of any model of domestic or imported electric stove is almost the same, but everyone has their own original nuances. For example, modern Hansa electric stoves from Germany have a special package, but we will consider the standard version that each electric stove model has. Traditionally, these products are a combined electrical appliance designed for cooking, it combines:
- hob with burners;
- lower drawer for storing dishes and baking sheets.
The principle of operation is standard for most electrical appliances: the current passing through the heating element heats it to a predetermined temperature. For convenient control on the front front panel are located regulators — they may be mechanical or electronic type, depending on the product class. As a rule, on the same panel are located two indicators: one notifying that the device is connected to the network, and the second notifying that the oven is turned on. On some stoves there is only the first indicator. With the knobs, users can set the cooking mode on any burner or oven.
The figure below shows a diagram of a standard electric stove.
Let’s decipher the notation:
- power regulator;
- terminal box;
- support bar;
- oven temperature sensor;
- the loop;
- oven heating element holder;
- oven heater;
- internal facing panel;
- door latch retainer;
- latch socket;
- insulating gasket;
- grill heater;
- burner rim;
- power cord;
- earth terminal;
- adjusting knobs.
Types of electric stoves according to the principle of heating
It is quite natural that when developing household kitchen appliances, engineers try to offer the user maximum convenience and efficiency in the use of electric stoves. Therefore, today the classic electric stove is becoming a thing of the past, giving way to more modern and high-tech solutions that also work on electricity.
Classic electric stove
The main working element of this plate – a heater covered with a sufficiently thick cast-iron plate. This design has a number of disadvantages. In particular, the block transports heat inefficiently due to the presence of air gaps.
Such a burner has a significant inertia. It is impossible to properly control the temperature regimes due to the fact that this part slowly heats up and cools down.
Due to their relatively low energy efficiency and significant consumption, classic stoves are losing popularity with the consumer. And if you add to their shortcomings complexity of care behind the burner plate, this negative attitude becomes even more justified. However, the classical solution has its advantages. Among them:
- affordable price tag;
- the inertia of the surface of the burners allows you to heat food for some time;
- you can use any type of dishes;
- burners are maintainable, easily replaced even with your own hands.
And the list of the main disadvantages looks like this:
- the burner heats up for a long time, it is difficult to choose a cooking mode;
- the cost of consumed electricity is high compared to other solutions;
- the time of trouble-free operation of the burners is very short.
Induction Heating Furnaces
Safety, speed of setting the heat transport mode, flexible control – all this induction furnaces offer their owners. They are easy to care for. The main energy-generating organ here is an inductor, which is located behind a layer of tempered glass. It is durable, does not scratch, easily washed from any contamination.
At the same time, nno risk of burns. Until a metal container or a frying pan is installed on the burner, energy transfer does not occur. The glass cools quickly, and it is impossible to get burned. That is, the oven does not heat its surface, but directly the walls of the metal utensils.
Induction cookers have a lot of advantages.
- You can choose the cooking mode very precisely. The operating parameters of the inductor are set quite strictly even by analog regulators.
- Good energy efficiency. The oven transfers energy only to the walls of metal dishes. She does not spend it on heating the air, her surface. As soon as the dishes are removed, the energy transfer stops immediately. Savings reach from 30 to 60% compared to classic solutions.
- The surface of the plate is safe, you can not get burned on it. Special durable glass is almost impossible to break during normal use of the device.
- The electric stove is easy to care for. No contaminants stick to the glass of its surface.
But there are also a number of disadvantages of such a seemingly ideal solution. Firstly, induction cookers have a high price tag. However, it should be honestly noted that every day it becomes more accessible. Secondly, for the induction cooker you will need special dishes. If it does not have the right bottom surface, the oven will not be able to transfer energy and simply will not start.
Halogen ovens claim to be a product with the latest technology. Their heat source is glass tubes with a mixture of gases and metal salts called halogen. Tape heating coils are also used. When voltage is applied, the halogen or metal element heats up to a high temperature, starting to transfer heat with infrared radiation.
Tubes or band heaters glow red during operation, signaling the danger of high temperatures and at the same time indicating the area for placing dishes. With the use of this class of heat sources, great ease of management. And not only temperature. By turning the individual heaters on or off, you can get a different size round-bottom pan area. Or select an area for installing oval containers.
The surface of halogen plates is made ceramic. During operation, it heats up to a high temperature. This is a potential source of burn hazard. However, most modern stove models are equipped with heating indicators, in addition, ceramics cool down quickly. The stove is easy to adjust to a certain thermal regime, the energy output is very intense, the flow is constant, it is supplied without delay.
Halogen stoves have a lot of advantages.
- Dishes and food in it warm up very quickly, the overall cooking process becomes shorter.
- The surface of the plate cools down quickly, the devices are equipped with an indication.
- Management is precise and clear. Modern systems offer both digital solutions with and without remote controls, as well as reliable analog controls.
- The surface of the plate is easy to clean.
- The device looks stylish.
But the disadvantages of halogen electric stoves are also enough.
- The price tag for the devices is very high.
- The device consumes significant power; in most apartments, it will require a separate connection line.
- Moisture on hot ceramics can damage them. Do not put wet dishes on the stove.
- When cleaning, the surface becomes scratched over time.
- Do not put dishes with an uneven bottom on the stove.
But the main disadvantage of halogen stoves is their service life. The mean time between failures of heaters is 5 to 8 years in everyday use.
The heat required for cooking various dishes inside the cabinet is generated using a special configuration of heating elements. In budget models, the heating element is one and located below. In most modern electric ovens, there are 2 heating elements: at the bottom and at the top. As a rule, the upper one is responsible for the “grill” function. The most advanced models also have side heating elements that allow you to cook food even faster. The amount of heating inside is regulated by a switch located on the control panel – a thermostat.
Most ovens equipped with a timerwhich not only turns off the device at the right time, but can also turn it on if the user installs the necessary program in advance.
Some models have convection – the fan distributes hot air evenly throughout the entire volume of the cabinet, so there is no need to turn, for example, a duck carcass while it is baking on a baking sheet.
The entire surface of the oven in the most advanced models is coated with a special high quality enamel coating, thanks to which it is quite easy to maintain internal cleanliness. For example, the Hans brand has a special mode – pyrolytic cleaning, when turned on, all dripping fat instantly turns into ashes.
Electric stoves are considered not only a unique product for high-quality cooking – they can become a highlight of your kitchen interior design. Each buyer will find his own model, made in a classic or modern style – a variety of dimensions and colors, the presence of a large number of functional features allows you to choose an electric stove according to personal priorities.