Modern ovens break down quite rarely, but problems in their work are not excluded. The difficulty is that the design and all its elements do not provide for outside interference. Repair of ovens at home is usually done by replacing components, and in most cases it is carried out by an experienced craftsman. However, in some cases, breakdowns can be repaired independently.
The principle of operation of the oven
Using the oven is very easy. Its owner is required to set the desired temperature and duration of the cooking process. Or choose one of the preset operating modes of the device. After that, it is enough to place food on the inner racks of the oven and close the door. The system not only controls the cooking process. Safety automation will prevent the release of hot air, if necessary, block the door, respond to any emergency situations and malfunctions in the operation of the furnace.
When looking into the oven, the user will see little. Grids, backlight, open grill heating elements and a protective thermal casing. But the device of the oven is much more complicated. The design includes a number of key components responsible for the formation of temperature and air circulation.
Lower heating element
Heating element on the bottom in all ovens. It is he who forms the main flow of heat for cooking. This element is not visible, it is closed by a thermal casing.
Ring heating element
Ring heating element works in convection mode. At the same time, the fan turns on, which distributes hot air throughout the oven. This option is not available on all cabinet models.
Upper heating element
Open upper heating element is only in ovens with grill option. Its task is both to ensure that the product is baked from all sides, and to create an appetizing crust on the surface of the dish. The security system controls the operation of the upper heating element, the heater automatically turns off when the door is opened.
Mode selection block
It can be either a circular switch or an electronic program selection panel. Depending on the complexity of the oven model, the user can stop at the grill mode, activate the convection system, and use other options.
In models of ovens with electronic control, the temperature can be adjusted automatically, depending on the cooking program selected by the user. It is also always possible to set the exact value. In inexpensive models, this is done with a circular regulator, a familiar knob.
The task of the thermal casing, the inner walls of the oven, is not only to protect the user from the danger of touching hot heaters. This metal shell distributes heat evenly, ensuring proper cooking.
Ventilation holes paired with a fan not only remove food vapors and excessively heated air. They cool the inside of the oven by the time it is time to remove cooked food from it, for complete comfort of use of the device.
The main information shown on the oven display is execution time of a given program. When the device is not busy with its main work, the clock or other data can be displayed on the scoreboard.
Door with tempered glass
The door performs several tasks at once. It closes the oven chamber and prevents heat leakage. Through its transparent heat-resistant glass, you can monitor the state of food. In addition, the door acts as a user protection. The contact modules built into it are monitored by the oven’s safety system.
Finally, the functioning of the oven is impossible without an electronic control module and numerous temperature control sensors. The level of complexity of electronic and hardware components depends on the class of the oven, its cost and the number of options offered.
What can break
Any oven, as well as any other complex device, can break. There are many typical malfunctions, the causes of which are clear even to users without special knowledge.
- If after setting the temperature, time and modes the device does not heat up, you need to check the condition of the power cable. It will not be superfluous to make sure that there is normal voltage in the outlet.
- If the heating element does not light up and there is no heating, it is recommended to first check correct setting of modes and program selection. You can also follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for troubleshooting such a problem.
- There is overheating, food burns – this indicates thermostat side problems. Incorrect operation of this device also leads to a low temperature inside the oven.
- If the food is poorly baked, does not cook normally even with an increased process time, you should pay attention to the heaters. Most likely you will have to replace one of the heaters.
With a completely inoperative oven, in most cases, failure of the electronic control module. It can be replaced or reflashed. However, such repairs require special knowledge.
Some models of ovens have a self-diagnostic system. They report a breakdown with codes on the display. For example, error ER17 in Ariston models shows that the temperature in the oven does not rise for 125 seconds, and you need to check the power supply, the condition of the heating elements, the control sensor. If a particular device has a self-diagnosis system, all error codes are given in the instructions for its operation.
Before you grab your multimeter, put on gloves, and take out a set of screwdrivers, it makes sense to check the power supply to the oven. It is worth looking for answers to the following questions:
- Is food served?
- Is the power cable OK?
- Is there good contact between socket and plug?
- Are there any traces of soot, melting on the plug and socket?
- Is the plug or oven fuse blown?
- Is the power wire in perfect condition, are there any fractures, abrasions or melting on it?
If there are no problems described above, and the oven still does not start, it is worth checking the appliance for standard faults.
Control system failure
If the electronic control unit of the oven suddenly fails, then be prepared to pay a tidy sum for repairs. In most cases, nothing needs to be done to identify this problem. Modern models of ovens are equipped with self-testing system: the electronics will signal itself by displaying the error code on the display.
Do-it-yourself repair of the control module is possible only if you have experience and knowledge in electronic technology.
Parts are replaceable and can be ordered from the manufacturer’s catalogue. Users who prefer to remove a baked chicken from the oven rather than electronic boards are better off calling a qualified craftsman.
If this is not possible or if the qualifications of the service personnel do not inspire confidence, you can order a control unit entirely. This can be done on the official website of the manufacturer or in a specialized online store. Installing a board in place of a burnt one is usually not difficult.
Power regulator repair
In fairly simple ovens, the temperature is maintained by mechanical power regulator. It controls the operation of the heaters. In case of various failures (overheating, insufficient temperature, cold oven), it is recommended to check the condition of the copper contacts of the power regulator. The assembly will have to be disassembled by removing the body elements. The plates are wiped with alcohol. With too thick dense layers or soot – you can use a fine sandpaper
It also needs to be examined condition of bimetallic plates. If they are broken or deformed, further repairs are irrational. You will have to buy a new power regulator.
Cleaning the knot in inexpensive ovens usually fixes all problems. Unfortunately, in complex electric ovens, heating elements are controlled by electronics. Checking the main module without special knowledge is not possible. It is recommended to entrust such work to the service center engineers.
Failure of blowers
Fans for blowing and grilling cease to create a high-quality air flow over time. If the engine is running, the impeller should be cleaned. Dust constantly accumulates on it, while grease and oil are on the blown fans.
After a certain period of operation, it is imperative to disassemble the oven and lubricate the engine, if this is provided for by its design.
In the event of a supercharger failure, rewinding or other repairs are simply unprofitable – the entire assembly is replaced. Do the same with the grill motor. It is placed in a non-separable housing along with the gearbox.
Breakdown of the heating element
The heating elements of the oven are constantly working in a critical mode. Determining if the heating element is working is quite simple. To do this, turn on the oven to the appropriate heating mode and check the temperature by touching your hand in a kitchen mitten. The method works, but for a more accurate result it is better apply pyrometer. The device will clearly show the uniformity of heating over the area, indicate the limiting temperature in a given mode. This will allow diagnosing the “burnt” heating element not only completely, but also partially.
Heaters are replaced after dismantling the case, it is not difficult to buy the appropriate part. Specific marking can be found after removing the heating element or according to the reference data of your electric oven model.
The last three elements that change without hesitation or hesitation are the backlight, thermal fuses and the touch film panel. All these parts are not subject to cleaning and repair.
The operation of the thermal fuse in emergency mode will be reported by the oven electronics, and problems in the operation of the film touch panel are diagnosed by the lack of reaction, the need to exert excessive pressure, and random triggering. You can replace the backlight lamp yourself, but to install new thermal fuses or a film sensor, it is better to contact the master.