An electric stove is present in every modern kitchen – it is the heart of this room. Despite the reliability of modern solutions, electric stove breakdowns sometimes occur. Some of them are quite simple and can be repaired with your own hands. In the article below, we will consider the main malfunctions of electric stoves and how to fix them.
The design and main components of the electric stove
The electric stove looks very impressive – it is a complex household appliance, but its design is quite simple, and all the main working elements are in a special heat-resistant housingwhich is made of stainless steel.
The principle of operation is similar to all electrical household appliances: the current, passing through the heating elements (heater), heats them up to a predetermined temperature. The stove has several burners on the hob, and their number varies: at least two, and the standard is 4 pcs.
The structure of the burners quite varied. The classics are burners on an enameled hob with a heating element inside, modern ones are solid ceramic surfaces with various types of heaters built into them. Consider the main types of burners.
- Old domestic options are completed with products cast ironthey heat up slowly and also cool down, creating a steam effect in the kitchen, but they are resistant to moisture and high temperatures.
- Tubular spirals – they are made from a hollow tube, when heated, such devices not only give off heat, but also promote the circulation of warm air inside their case, which significantly increases the efficiency of their work. These products are very difficult to repair yourself.
- Burners ceramic very simple in design, they are easy to repair at home – a nichrome spiral is laid in special cells in a circle and fixed. Modern models are increasingly using glass-ceramic solid plates – they are more durable and easy to clean.
- Halogen devices – these are special burners with a similar emitter, which are installed in different places on the hob. A stove with such burners provides fast heating, in a second, and low power consumption, so they are the most economical, but only professional craftsmen can do repairs.
All models of modern stoves for transmitting current to the burners use power wire special section, in addition, they are connected to regulators and thermostats, providing their protection against overheating.
In different models, the heating level is controlled in different ways: by manually changing the cooking mode or by special timers and signaling devices that control.
We disassemble the product
Models of plates are different not only in external form, but also in size, design – it is impossible to describe a disassembly algorithm that will fit all products. The common factor for all is the presence of a thermal insulation layer – you have to be very careful with it. Users should be aware that asbestos dust from the gaskets under the burners in older models is very unhealthy – keep this fact in mind when disassembling archaic stoves.
at first dismantling the hob – it is fastened with screws, if you unscrew them, then it can be easily removed. Below it are the burners that lead wires to them and mechanical temperature controllers, which are located on the front panel.
All this must be dismantled in order to get to the lower part, where the oven heating elements are located.
At a modern electric stove with a hob glass-ceramic disassembling the case for repair will be different – in order to get inside, you just need to remove the top panel.
Why did the electric stove stop working?
In a good half of the cases, the problem lies in the electrical circuit. The device stops responding to control, the indication turns off, the burners do not heat up, and the oven does not work. There are a number of reasons that can lead to equipment failure:
- faulty socket;
- the heating element burned out;
- the terminals are disconnected;
- contacts are oxidized;
- knocked out fuses or automatic;
- damaged network cable.
Important! Before starting any work, it is necessary first of all to completely disconnect the equipment by pulling the plug from the socket.
Troubleshooting includes ringing the circuits with a multimeter, where each connection is checked: heating elements, burners, indication, control unit, thermostat, fuses, etc.
As a rule, the operating instructions are accompanied by a detailed electric stove diagramas well as recommendations of a technical nature. But in order to diagnose, you need to have a clear understanding of the nature of electrical connections. Otherwise, it is better to contact a specialist.
Some problems are visible to the naked eye. For example, if the glow intensity of heated heating elements drops or dark areas begin to appear on the spirals, then it is time to change the heating element. Let’s consider common malfunctions of electric stoves.
Burners not working after turning oven on
More often this happens due to problems within the circuit: closed or, on the contrary, broken contacts. The latter are concentrated in junction boxwhich is located on the back of most models.
It is necessary to inspect the wires for physical damage and oxidation of the contacts. If the end of the cable is charred, then you can try to clean it by cutting off the problem area. Terminals and contact points also need to be treated with sandpaper, getting rid of the oxide that has appeared.
The problem may not be in the stove itself, but in the socket or plug. The first can be checked by connecting another electrical appliance, for example, a kettle. When choosing a socket, you should pay attention to rated current. If it differs from that specified on the machine, then the wiring may melt or even catch fire. For a single-phase network, a classic 32 amp outlet is more than enough.
The chromed fork elements must be clean with no signs of burning. If there are any, then it must be cleaned, and in difficult cases, replaced. The same rule applies here: buy a plug with an eye on the rated current of the machine.
Checking other nodes
Modern technology is provided with more reliable protection, unlike models of older generations. If the heating element malfunctions, the operation of the electric stove can be completely blocked. To eliminate the problem with the burner, you should check several main components.
One of the most common problems – power surges – lead to blown fuses. They look different. Most often, this is a small part with a glass or ceramic body with thick contacts at the ends.
You can check their performance with a multimeter: if the resistance is barely visible, then everything is in order, otherwise, we change to new ones. Fortunately, they are inexpensive and are sold in any electronics and home appliance store.
It is very important to choose the correct fuse. If the element has less sensitivity than necessary, then it will burn constantly. And overestimated indicators can cause burnout of the main elements of the electric stove.
The ideal option is to take the old fuse with you when you go for a new one.
If the machine in the shield constantly knocks out when the stove is turned on, then the whole thing is a short circuit. The wires could melt and twist with each other. You should inspect the electrical wiring of the stove, ring suspicious areas with a multimeter and fix the problem.
Sometimes the problem lies in the machine itself. For example, if there was a replacement for a variant with a lower load power. In this case, you need to do as with a fuse: take it with you to the store and buy a solution with similar characteristics.
Next, you need to inspect the power switch. If it is mechanical, then some physical damage will be immediately noticeable. We unscrew the fasteners on the panel, disconnect the fixing shaft and remove the switch. Inside you can see several springs: we take them out and inspect the structure.
A common cause of switch failure is melted contacts. We remove large plaque with a sharp object, and clean the remnants with sandpaper. If necessary, replace the wires and terminals. Next, assemble the switch in reverse order. If the unit is digital, then it is better to leave the repair to a specialist.
The burner may not turn on due to a burnt spiral. On many models, you can replace the heating element yourself. The procedure must be described in detail in the operating instructions for the device. To replace the spiral, you will either need to remove the entire top panel or a separate burner cap.
If the temperature controller fails, then after turning off the stove, the heating elements continue to work until they burn out, or the user completely de-energizes the equipment. The thermostat is a small, rather complicated, but inexpensive part. Therefore, as such, repair is impractical here. It is much more practical to buy a new regulator and just replace it.
The network cable for electric stoves comes with a thick and reliable braid. But even such a wire can be damaged, for example, by pinching it with appliances or interior items. The first step is to inspect the cable for the presence of physical damage.
Next, we check the reliability of the connection of the wire to the terminal block. If possible, then the cord is better ring with a multimeter. Replace the cable if necessary. The wire must be copper: no aluminum and other alloys based on it.
Also worth pay attention to phases. For conventional equipment with a single-phase connection to a 220 V network, the wire thickness varies within 6 mm, while for three-phase devices it is at least 2.5 mm. Changing the cord itself is not difficult.
Replacing the network cable:
- Disconnect the plug from the outlet.
- We unscrew the fasteners on the rear wall and remove the back panel.
- Inside there should be a distribution block where the power cord is connected.
- Disconnect the old cable and connect the new one to the same pins.
- We mount the back wall in place.
Experts strongly do not recommend “stitching” the network cable, that is, stripping problem areas and wrapping them with electrical tape after connecting. The factory braid reliably protects the wire from almost anything and everything. While electrical tape can melt and disable the electric stove.
Advice! When choosing a cable in a store, you should give preference to soft and flexible solutions. A hard braid wears out faster and is susceptible to breakage. Price also matters: reliable options cannot cost a penny.
If you have a simple stove with burners on an enameled hob, then you can repair it on your own, after watching the video: